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the LOCAL RADIO thread

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Local radio stations. Post them. Online ones.


KKFI 90.1




” ”

Nikola Tesla

Electrical Engineering Institute

Automation and Control Department

Static Excitation Systems for Synchronous Machines

Automatic Voltage Regulators and Static Excitation Systems provides high performance control of all

kinds of synchronous machines. The microprocessor-based voltage regulator uses the latest available

technology. The development is based on more than 40 years experience with semiconductors and

more than 15 years experience with microprocessor technology.

System configurations

Product range

AVR and SES are available in the following

System is available as

configurations (Fig 2.):

- Automatic Voltage Regulator (AVR)

- Single automatic channel system (SACS) with one

for 50 Hz supply using thyristor converter

excitation module including one power converter

- Static Excitation System (SES)

and one controller for both AUTO and MAN

for 50 Hz supply using thyristor converter.

control modes

- Dual automatic channel system (DACS) with two

identical excitation modules each with power

converter and controller. Each channel can

operate in AUTO or MAN mode.

Voltage Voltage

A follow-up control ensures a smooth change-over

regulator regulator

from one mode or one channel to another.


Dual channel


option MAN

Fig 1. Static excitation system block diagram


Basic components

- Excitation transformer MAN

- Thyristor power converter DACS

- Automatic voltage regulator AUTO

- Field discharge equipment


A wide selection of power components and

Fig 2. Main configurations

software functions is available to provide a system

which meets the most demanding technical

Regulator highlights


Additional regulator redundancy

Digital control Dual-channel system

A microprocessor-based system provides high Digital input processing

control accuracy (min. + 0.5%) and high initial - Three-phase voltage measurement


response (approx. 20 ms). Its well-structured - Three-phase current measurement

software offers a wide range of functions covering - Digital processing of the input values with a

standard (e.g. limiters) and optional (e.g. PSS and signal processor

Electric Breaking System ) functions. Independent current regulator

Separate device with power supply, measurement

Local operation and gate control circuits can be used. Because of

System includes a control panel for local operation the follow-up control for all the inactive regulators,

and monitoring. With this panel it is also possible in the case of failure of the active regulator a

to modify system parameters and to make changes smooth switch-over to a ready-to-operate

to the application programs on-line. regulator channel is guaranteed.

” ”

Nikola Tesla

Electrical Engineering Institute

Automation and Control Department

Protection and monitoring functions

Power section highlights

- Field flashing time

Power converter redundancy - Overcurrent protection

- Power converter redundancy of parallel power (instantaneous / inverse time)

converters are possible - Loss of excitation protection

- Power converter redundancy is completely - Power converter fuses monitoring

independent of the regulator configuration - Power converter fans monitoring

- Instantaneous excitation trip for protection

Intelligent power converter electronics purposes.

- 2-quadrant operation (negative excitation

current is possible) Control functions

- Fan control and monitoring All standard excitation sequences and interlocks

- Monitoring of fuses, power converter are software-based with fixed pre-programmed

temperature and cooling-air flow function blocks. They can be extended with freely

- Bridge current display. programmable function blocks by the user.

Functionality of the standard Program Additional Software Functions

This comprises the following excitation specific The characteristics of the excitation system can be

functions: adapted by both extending the application program

and with optional software functions, in order to

Regulator functions optimally match the system to the customer's


- Voltage regulator with PID filter

(AUTO operating mode) Application function blocks

- Field current regulator with PI filter

In addition to the standard software functions,

(MAN operating mode)

further universally applicable function blocks of

- Reactive load and/or active load various kinds are available for the application

droop/compensation program.

- Limiters for

Power System Stabilizer (PSS)

– maximum and minimum field current

– maximum stator current (lead / lag) The purpose of the power system stabilizer is to

improve the stability of the generator and the

– P/Q underexcitation

transmission system as a whole by using the

- Follow-up control

excitation to damp load oscillations.


(for dual automatic channel systems)

Electric Breaking System

– operating mode AUTO ? MAN

Electric breaking system is used for faster

- MANUAL restrict

stopping of hydro power unit by making use of

- Power system stabilizer (option) electromagneting counter-moment of

- Electric breaking system (option) short-circuited generator

Electrical Engineering Institute Nikola Tesla

Automation and Control Department

Koste Glaviniæa 8a, 11000Belgrade, Serbia

Telephone: +381 11 3690 548

Fax: +381 11 3690 823

Email: adusan@ieent.org

Web: ieent.org

Experiment alone can determine its value, and one properly conducted and interpreted set of experiments should enable us to judge both the merit of the invention and its best possible form. I cannot see, however, how, in the form described in the last issue of this journal the motor can work under conditions of a suddenly varying load as satisfactorily as continuous current motors."


To the above Mr. Tesla replied on June 2 as follows:


"I find in your issue of last week a note of Mr. Duncan referring to my system of alternate current motors.


"As I see that Dr. Duncan has not as yet been made acquainted with the real character of my invention, I cannot consider his article in the light of a serious criticism, and would think it unnecessary to respond; but desiring to express my consideration for him and the importance which I attach to his opinion, I will point out here briefly the characteristic features of my invention, inasmuch as they have a direct bearing on the article above referred to.


"The principle of action of my motor will be well understood from the following: By passing alternate currents in proper manner through independent energising circuits in the motor, a progressive shifting or rotation of the poles of the same is effected. This shifting is more or less continuous according to the construction of the motor and the character and relative phase of the currents which should exist in order to secure the most perfect action.

"If a laminated ring be wound with four coils, and the same be connected in proper order to two independent circuits of an alternate current generator adapted for this purpose, the passage of the currents through the coils produces theoretically a rotation of the poles of the ring, and in actual practice, in a series of experiments, I have demonstrated the complete analogy between such a ring and a revolving magnet. From the application of this principle to the operation of motors, two forms of motor of a character widely differing have resulted [in] one designed for constant and the other for variable load. The misunderstanding of Dr. Duncan is due to the fact that the prominent features of each of these two forms have not been specifically stated. In illustration of a representative of the second class, I refer to Fig. 1, given herewith. In this instance, the armature of the motor is provided with two coils at right angles. As it may be believed that a symmetrical arrangement of the coils with respect to the poles is required, I will assume that the armature is provided with a great number of diametrically wound coils or conductors closed upon themselves, and forming as many independent circuits. Let it now be supposed that the ring is permanently magnetized so as to show two poles (N and S) at two points diametrically opposite, and that it is rotated by mechanical power. The armature being stationary, the rotation of the ring magnet will set up currents in the closed armature coils. These currents will be most intense at or near the points of the greatest density of the force, and they will produce poles upon the armature core at right angles to those of the ring. Of course there will be other elements entering into action which will tend to modify this, but for the present they may be left unconsidered. As far as the location of the poles upon the armature core is concerned, the currents generated in the armature coils will always act in the same manner, and will maintain continuously the poles of the core in the same position, with respect to those of the ring in any position of the latter, and independently of the speed. From the attraction between the core and the ring, a continuous rotary effort, constant in all positions, will result, the same as in a continuous current motor with a great number of armature coils. If the armature be allowed to turn, it will revolve in the direction of rotation of the ring magnet, the induced current diminishing as the speed increases, until upon the armature reaching very nearly the speed of the magnet, just enough current will flow through the coils to keep up the rotation. If, instead of rotating the ring by mechanical power, the poles of the same are shifted by the action of the alternate currents in the two circuits, the same results are obtained.


"Now compare this system with a continuous current system. In the latter we have alternate currents in the generator and motor coils, and intervening devices for commutating the currents, which on the motor besides effect automatically a progressive shifting or rotation of the poles of the armature; here we have the same elements and identically the same operation, but without the commutating devices. In view of the fact that these devices are entirely unessential to the operation, such alternate current system will - at least in many respects - show a complete similarity with a continuous current system, and the motor will act precisely like a continuous current motor. If the load is augmented, the speed is diminished and the rotary effort correspondingly increased, as more current is made to pass through the energising circuits; load being taken off, the speed increases, and the current, and consequently the effort, is lessened. The effort, of course, is greatest when the armature is in the state of rest.


"But, since the analogy is complete, how about the maximum efficiency and current passing through the circuits when the motor is running without any load? one will naturally inquire. It must be remembered that we have to deal with alternate currents. In this form the motor simply represents a transformer, in which currents are induced by a dynamic action instead of by reversals, and, as it might be expected, the efficiency will be maximum at full load. As regards the current, there will be - at least, under proper conditions - as wide a variation in its strength as in a transformer, and, by observing proper rules, it may be reduced to any desired quantity. Moreover, the current passing through the motor when running free, is no measure for the energy absorbed, since the instruments indicate only the numerical sum of the direct and induced electromotive forces and currents instead of showing their difference.


"Regarding the other class of these motors, designed for constant speed, the objections of Dr. Duncan are, in a measure applicable to certain constructions, but it should be considered that such motors are not expected to run without any, or with a very light load; and, if so, they do not, when properly constructed, present in this respect any more disadvantage than transformers under similar conditions. Besides, both features, rotary effort and tendency to constant speed, may be combined in a motor, and any desired preponderance may be given to either one, and in this manner a motor may be obtained possessing any desired character and capable of satisfying any possible demand in practice.


"In conclusion, I will remark, with all respect to Dr. Duncan, that the advantages claimed for my system are not mere assumptions, but results actually obtained, and that for this purpose experiments have been conducted through a long period, and with an assiduity such as only a deep interest in the invention could inspire; nevertheless, although my motor is the fruit of long labour and careful investigation, I do not wish to claim any other merit beyond that of having invented it, and I leave it to men more competent than myself to determine the true laws of


the principle and the best mode of its application. What the result of these investigations will be the future will tell; but whatever they may be, and to whatever this principle may lead, I shall be sufficiently recompensed if later it will be admitted that I have contributed a share, however small, to the advancement of science."

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107.5 WGCI Fm Chicago,

and power 92.3 is all i really listen to

whenever i have a chance to listen to the radio...

all in all the radio sucks.....

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albuquerque, new mexico UNM station every late friday night/sat morning

12:00 a.m.

station called STREET BEAT

these guys put it down,









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I've noticed when driving across the country that it's the same stations playing the same rotation of songs and the same "rock blocks" and "two for Tuesdays" and all that shit nomatter where you go.

Clearchannel pwns America.

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most radio stations are streaming their stations online on their websites.


sacramento's local stations:


fm 102.5 ksfm (r&b/rap)

fm 103.5 kbmb (r&b/rap)


both stations suck...fuck them both.


98 rock here in sac has an awesome morning show though called rob arnie and dawn.

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all in all the radio sucks.....


Yah, that's why I'm down with community radio. Not Clear Channel or Cumulus Broadcasting.

Post public radio stations that have streaming.

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pirate radio ftw!


i was talking to the guy that started knoz 96.5 in sac...it was a pirate radio playing underground rap from local artists and was picking up a lot of steam, even getting good funding from selling air time for ads.

....it was a pirate radio station.


well anyways, 103.5 kbmb a clear channel station got wind of the pirate station and snitched on them to the fcc.


the fcc showed up once and gave them a warning and told them they have to shut down.


the 2nd time they showed up, they told them that it was the last warning and the next time, they would fine them $50,000.


if you google knoz 96.5, the entire story should be found.

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KCRW is the only station I listen to.


KXLU maybe once or twice a year.

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pirate radio is some shit.


in SF it was cool for a hot minute. even the bitchass mayor of SF went on for an interview a few years ago.


my boy ran the station and hiding the transmitter was rough, but do-able. dude used to run the Howard Stern satellite show on a 2-minute delay....


the FCC shut them down recently too....

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friday nights 10-12 CST is some of the grimeyest deep funk you will hear anywhere else. Im not playing... D-Funk is super old school funk DJ I use to work for who scours the southeast like no other...

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