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chechnya: a very brief history

Discussion in 'Channel Zero' started by THE CORONER, Sep 10, 2004.

  1. THE CORONER

    THE CORONER Banned

    Joined: Jun 2, 2004 Messages: 2,171 Likes Received: 0
    there seems to be a lotta talk about chechnya recently so heres something i found:

    [edit]
    Post-Soviet Chechnya
    After the demise of the Soviet Union, the situation in Chechnya became unclear. Below is the chronology of that time:

    During the Soviet era, there was the Checheno-Ingushkaja ASSR, consisting of Chechnja and Ingushetija. In 1990 it was renamed to the Checheno-Ingushkaja Respublika (Chechen-Ingush Republic).
    On September 1, 1991 some Chechen politicians formed the "National Congress of Chechen People", declared that part of the Chechen-Ingush Republic became an independent state of the Chechen Republic and stated that supreme power is given to the Executive Committee lead by Dzhokhar Dudayev.
    On September 2, 1991 a group of religious and public figures made a petition, claiming that the Executive Committee was not legitimate and that actions of the Committee might inevitably lead to bloodshed.
    On September 6, 1991 the building of the Supreme Soviet was occupied by Dzhokhar Dudayev's guards.
    On September 15, 1991, a last session of the Supreme Soviet of the Chechen-Ingush Republic took place, and it decided to dissolve itself (under the request of Dudayev's guards).
    On October 1, 1991 some of the ex-deputies decided to divide the republic into the Chechen Republic and the Ingush Republic.
    On October 27, 1991, an unofficial election was held. Less than 20% (probably 12%) of the population participated, and Dzhokhar Dudayev was elected. Many false ballots were made, so the number of ballots significantly exceeded number of registered voters.
    On November 1, 1991 Dudayev issued a decree of Chechen independence (Óêàç îá "Îá îáúÿâëåíèè ñóâåðåíèòåòà ×å÷åíñêîé Ðåñïóáëèêè ñ 1 íîÿáðÿ 1991 ã.")
    On November 2, 1991, the 5th Assembly of People's Deputies of RSFSR (the Russian parliament of that time) took place. A resolution was issued stating that the Chechen Supreme Soviet and President were not legitimate.
    On May, 1993 Chechen parliament and Muftiat (Islamic high council) made an appeal to the Chechen people to defend the old constitution and restore legitimate power. The decision of the Chechen constitutional court was that Dudayev's actions were illegal.
    The civil war then started. The Russian Federal government refused to recognize Chechen independence and made several attempts to take full control of the territory of the Chechen Republic. The Federal government supported a failed coup designed to overthrow Dudayev in 1994. There were two armed conflicts involving the Federal army known as the two Chechen Wars.

    As a background, many ethnic minorities exist in the Russian Federation alongside a predominantly Russian culture, and commentators speculate that if Russia permits Chechen independence, then other groups might also push for independence.

    [edit]
    First Chechen War (1994-1996)
    Main article: First Chechen War

    Russian federal forces overran Groznyj in November, 1994. Although the forces achieved some initial successes, the federal military made a number of critical strategic blunders during the Chechnya campaign and was widely perceived as incompetent. Led by Aslan Maskhadov, separatists conducted successful guerrilla operations from the mountainous terrain.

    By March 1995, Amir Khattab became leader of the Chechen resistance, yet Russian President Boris Yeltsin declared a unilateral cease-fire in April 1995.

    In June, 1995, Chechen guerrillas occupied a hospital in the southern Russian town of Budyonnovsk (in Stavropol Krai), taking over 1,000 hostages. Federal forces attempted to storm the hospital twice and failed. The guerrillas were allowed to leave after freeing their hostages.

    This incident, televised accounts of Chechen soldiers torturing and executing captured federal soldiers and pro-federal Chechens, and the resulting widespread demoralization of the federal army, led to a federal withdrawal and the beginning of negotiations on March 21, 1996.

    Separatist President Dudayev was supposedly killed in a Russian rocket attack on April 21, 1996; there are versions that he was killed by his rivals in a fight for local power. Vice-president Zelimkhan Yandarbiyev became president. Negotiations on Chechen independence were repeatedly postponed by the federal government due to alleged terrorist attacks, and finally tabled in August, 1996.

    Maskhadov was elected President in 1997 (only a minority of the population participated), but was unable to consolidate control as the country devolved into regional bickering among local teip leaders and organized criminal factions.

    [edit]
    Second Chechen War (1999-2002) and its consequences
    Main article: Second Chechen War

    Renegade separatist Chechen army commanders reportedly financed by Osama bin Laden led a band of soldiers into Dagestan in August, 1999. Headed by Shamil Basayev and Amir Khattab, the insurgents fought Russian forces in Dagestan for a week before being driven back into Chechnya proper. On September 9, 1999, Chechens were blamed for the bombing of an apartment complex in Moscow and several other explosions in Russia (see:Russian Apartment Bombings). Many of these explosions were carried out using hexogen, or RDX, which is is an explosive often used by guerilla groups. Its low volatility allows for ease of transport while its tremendous explosive power means that a small amount can do enormous damage.

    Russia's new prime minister Vladimir Putin, ordered forces back into Chechen territory on pretexts of Dagestan raid and the bombings. Currently, most of Chechnya is controlled by the federal military and republican police. In 2002, federals installed a government of pro-federal Chechens into local government offices. In 2003, referendum on constitution and presidential election were held and a government formed. Chechens who work in government jobs are very often assassinated by the Chechen separatist forces.

    Many Chechen separatists have retreated into Kerigo Gorge in Georgia. Russia accuses the Georgian government of willingly harboring militants and demands that the Georgian government take action against the separatists - and Georgia refused this. Several separatists have been detained by Georgian authorities, but Russia claims that these are empty gestures, and has repeatedly warned Georgia that if real measures are not taken soon to control the Chechen separatists, it will invade and control them itself.

    Vladimir Putin announced that the Chechen war had ended in early 2002, but separatist forces still control a large portion of the mountainous southern regions of the country and regularly skirmish with federal troops and pro-federal Chechens. However, in according with the announcement, the federal army releases power to the republican police.

    Amir Khattab, the prominent leader of Islamist forces, was poisoned in Chechnya in March 2002. He was replaced by Amir Abu al-Walid.

    The war budget for Chechnya is a tremendous source of personal revenue for various officials, both federal and regional, who skim money designated for equipment and soldiers', teachers', medics, etc. salaries (during both wars, money was being transferred in belief that they would reach civilian population), and most of the separatist soldiers' weapons are Russian made; a major part was left by the federal army in the early 1990s and a significant part supposedly has been illegally purchased from federal soldiers. For their part, the separatists control a lucrative illegal drug and oil smuggling trade, and routinely kidnap foreign aid workers and others for ransom. The Russian government claims that there is also strong evidence that local terrorist activity is supported with money and arms from Islamic militant groups such as Al-Qaeda.

    Both the federal and separatist armies have been widely criticized by human rights groups such as Amnesty International for alleged war crimes committed during the two Chechen wars, including well-documented accusations on both sides of rape, torture, looting, and the murder of civilians.

    Colonel Yuri Budanov became the first Russian to be tried on charges of war crimes committed in Chechnya. He was brought to trial in late 2002 on charges of murder and abduction, after being accused of raping and strangling Heda Kungayeva, an 18 year old Chechen girl whom Budanov claims was a separatist sniper. In a controversial decision, he was found not guilty by reason of insanity on December 31, 2002 and committed to a psychiatric hospital for further evaluation and treatment. However, upon further study, it was decided that he understood everything he did, and so was found guilty.

    [edit]
    Recent militant attacks
    At about 2:30 PM local time on December 27, 2002, two truck bombs were driven at high speed into the Grozny headquarters of Chechnya's federal-backed government in an apparent suicide attack, killing at least 72 people, injuring at least 500, and destroying the Chechen government administrative building.

    The next day, Russian counterterrorism officials accused President Mashkadov of conspiring with Chechen warlord Shamil Basayev and an Arab named Abu al-Walid, said to be a member of a terrorist organization called the Muslim Brotherhood, to plan the attack. Mashkadov issued a statement condemning the attacks and denying any involvement.

    According to Russian officials, the vehicles used in the attacks were a large, heavy truck and a smaller Jeep-type vehicle with Russian military license plates. The drivers wore federal military uniforms and carried official passes which allowed them through three successive military checkpoints on their way to the headquarters building. A guard at the fourth and final checkpoint attempted to inspect the vehicles, and began firing on the trucks as they drove through the checkpoint towards the building.

    After the bombings of the government headquarters, Chechen militants staged more suicide bombings throughout the region. On May 12, 2003, a truck bomb killed 59 at another government building. Two days later, 2 women bombers killed 16 in an attempt to kill the pro-Moscow future president of Chechnya. On June 4, a female bomber blew herself up near a bus in Chechnya, killing 20.

    On July 5, two bombers killed 14 at a rock concert outside Moscow, the first time such an attack has occurred there. On August 1, a truck bomb levelled a Russian military hospital and killed 50. A suicide bombing December 5 killed 44 on a Russian train, and on December 9, a female bomber killed 6 people in Moscow, apparently targeting the Russian parliament. Another attack in Moscow took place on February 6, 2004, when a bomber killed 41 people on a subway.

    On May 9, 2004, the pro-Moscow president, Akhmad Kadyrov, was assassinated by a bomb placed under his seat while observing a Victory Day parade. Six others were also killed. Chechen militants were the prime suspects and President Putin vowed revenge on those groups responsible.
     
  2. KYU

    KYU Member

    Joined: Feb 20, 2004 Messages: 437 Likes Received: 0
  3. villain

    villain Veteran Member

    Joined: Jul 12, 2002 Messages: 5,190 Likes Received: 2
    ditto.
    It does seem that chechen rebels are better equipped than the notorious al queda.
     
  4. THE CORONER

    THE CORONER Banned

    Joined: Jun 2, 2004 Messages: 2,171 Likes Received: 0
    they are better equipped it seems than al-qaeda because al-qaeda is worldwide, fighting against the invisible enemy known as 'infidels', whereas the chechens know who theyre enemy is and have been fighting them since 1850ish. ill have a few more articles up later, i wrote my thesis in university on the country
     
  5. THE CORONER

    THE CORONER Banned

    Joined: Jun 2, 2004 Messages: 2,171 Likes Received: 0
    Moscow, April 13, 2004)—The bodies of nine men bearing the marks of extrajudicial execution were found in Chechnya on Friday, Human Rights Watch said today. Eight of the men had been forcibly disappeared two weeks ago after armed men, presumed to be Russian forces, took them from their homes.

    The U.N. Human Rights Commission should not allow Russia to dictate the terms of debate. It is Russia’s failure to stop abuses and impunity for them that’s putting the political process in the region in doubt. Russia is taking for granted that the international community will just turn a blind eye to atrocities, and the Commission must dispel this perception.

    The bodies were found a week before the U.N. Commission on Human Rights is to vote on a resolution calling on Russia to address abuses in Chechnya.

    “This latest incident of forced disappearances and extrajudicial executions should serve as a wake-up call to those who believe that things have improved in Chechnya,” said Rachel Denber, acting executive director of Human Rights Watch’s Europe and Central Asia Division. “The U.N. Human Rights Commission can help break this ongoing cycle of abuse and impunity by adopting the resolution introduced last week.”

    About ten days ago, Human Rights Watch researchers spoke with villagers from Duba-Yurt in southern Chechnya while they were still searching for their “disappeared” relatives. They told Human Rights Watch that at around 2 a.m. on March 27, eight military vehicles bearing smudged number plates entered the village. Among the vehicles were armored personnel carriers, used exclusively by Russian forces.

    A large group of masked men in camouflage uniforms, who had arrived in these vehicles, raided 19 houses in Duba-Yurt and detained 11 men between the ages of 28 and 44. Several witnesses independently told Human Rights Watch that the armed men—who spoke Russian without a Chechen accent—burst into the houses, forced the families to the floor at gunpoint, and took the men away without checking their documents or giving them a chance to dress.

    The armed men released three of the detainees near the village the same night, but the remaining eight subsequently “disappeared.” Among them were Bai-Ali Elmurzaev (b.1968), Idris Elmurzaev (b. 1971), Sharip Elmurzaev (b.1974), Apti Murtazov (b.1964), Lechi Shoipov (b.1960), Zelimkhan Osmaev (b.1975), Khusim Khadzhimuradov (b.1975), and Isa Khadzhimuradov (b. 1965). The men’s relatives appealed to the procuracy—a government agency responsible both for criminal investigation and prosecution—and other authorities for information on their whereabouts, but received no response. Unofficial sources told relatives that the eight men were being held at the Russian military base in Khankala, yet the procuracy denied they were held there.

    On Friday, local residents found nine bodies in a ravine outside Serzhen-Yurt, a village about 25 kilometers (15 miles) northeast of Duba-Yurt. The bodies bore gunshot wounds to their heads and torsos, as well as numerous signs of torture. Villagers who discovered the corpses said the men had been shot very recently. A medical doctor reportedly found that they were killed two days before. Eight of the bodies were identified as belonging to the men seized from Duba-Yurt. The ninth body belonged to another Duba-Yurt resident who had also been detained previously.

    Chechen law enforcement authorities have allegedly launched an investigation, but to date have been unable to determine either the perpetrators or the place were the men had been held.

    Also on Friday, a Russian court issued a ruling liquidating the operations in Russia of the Danish Refugee Counsel, a humanitarian organization that had been one of the major sources of humanitarian assistance to internally displaced persons since the renewal of the conflict in 1999. According to the court ruling, the Danish organization must cease its activity in Russia and close its offices in Stavropol, Nazran and Moscow. The liquidation hearing was initiated by the Ministry of Justice on the grounds that the organization had failed “to report the changes in the organization’s leadership and its legal address.”

    These incidents took place just as the European Union on Thursday introduced a resolution on Chechnya at the U.N. Commission on Human Rights during its annual session in Geneva. The resolution expresses concern about continued human rights violations in Chechnya and calls on the Russian government to take urgent measures to address them. Russia responded by accusing the European Union of “putting the political process in the North Caucasus region in doubt” and “providing moral support for terrorists.”

    “The U.N. Human Rights Commission should not allow Russia to dictate the terms of debate,” said Denber. “It is Russia’s failure to stop abuses and impunity for them that’s putting the political process in the region in doubt. Russia is taking for granted that the international community will just turn a blind eye to atrocities, and the Commission must dispel this perception.”

    Human Rights Watch also urged the European Union to use the EU-Russia ministerial meeting, set for April 14, to raise the need for urgent measures to stop abuses in Chechnya.

    During the Chechnya conflict, now in its fifth year, tens of thousands of civilians have fallen victim to abuses perpetrated by both Russian forces and Chechen rebels. These abuses include indiscriminate bombings and several massacres, extrajudicial executions, forced disappearances, rape, torture and arbitrary detentions. The overwhelming majority of these crimes remained uninvestigated and unpunished.

    Nevertheless, Russian authorities claim that the situation in Chechnya has been “normalized.” Meanwhile, they have persistently restricted access to the region for journalists and for international humanitarian and human rights agencies, and have coerced thousands of the internally displaced to return back to Chechnya, with blatant disregard for their security.

    In both 2000 and 2001, the U.N. Commission on Human Rights passed resolutions calling on the Russian government to stop abuses, establish a meaningful accountability process and invite the U.N. monitoring mechanisms to the region. Russia defied the resolutions and failed to comply with most of their recommendations.

    “For too long, the world has been indulging Russia in its claims that the situation has been ‘normalized’,” said Denber. “It’s time for the world to send an unequivocal message that Russia must take real measures to stop the abuses in Chechnya.”

    New evidence of torture, enforced disappearances and extrajudicial executions perpetrated over the last three months in Chechnya and neighboring Ingushetia was presented on April 8 in a joint statement by Human Rights Watch, Amnesty International, the Medical Foundation for the Care of Victims of Torture, and Memorial Human Rights Center. The four organizations called on the international community to take immediate action to address the situation, and urged the U.N. Commission on Human Rights to adopt a strong resolution on Chechnya and Ingushetia.




    ive got one more so hold on
     
  6. THE CORONER

    THE CORONER Banned

    Joined: Jun 2, 2004 Messages: 2,171 Likes Received: 0
    i found this on www.islamicawakening.com, and as you can clearly see, they advicate not attacking innocent people, only military targets....

    1. I want to go and fight in Chechnya. How do I get there?


    (a) The Mujahideen in Chechnya are not in need of manpower at present.


    (B) The routes into and out of Chechnya are blocked off due to snow at present. This situation is expected to change once the snows clear, in March/April.


    © If you are not trained, then the Mujahideen in Chechnya advise you to go and get some training first in countries like Afghanistan.


    (d) Azzam Publications is only a news outlet. We do not help or 'sponsor' people to go for Jihad.


    (e) Anyone interested in going to fight (if they are trained) or in going to train should contact members of their own communities and countries who are known to have been for Jihad. You will know these people and they will know you. In these cases, you should only speak in confidence to those whom you trust, rather than speaking to everyone.


    (f) Anyone unable to go and fight in Chechnya should refrain from attacking innocent people in countries outside the land of fighting. Any such energy should be translated into actually fighting in Chechnya, or obtaining training in other parts of the World.


    (g) To see what the Mujahideen in Chechnya need at present, read the answers below.






    2. How do I send donations to the Muslims in Chechnya?


    There are many relief organisations and individuals collecting money for the Chechen cause, all over the World. Only a fraction of this money actually reaches those in need. This war has seen the rise of many 'official' Chechen
    personalities who go round mosque to mosque, collecting money for the 'Jihad'. No-one knows their history and few people in Chechnya even know who these people are.


    It is quite easy to become an 'official' fundraiser. Just speak Russian, take some photos and videos with you, make up some letters and ID cards and visit mosques claiming to be a member of the Chechen Government. The Muslims should use their intelligence and not hand over their money to people just because they are Chechens or just because they show a letter or two.


    There is one trusted aid agency that has set up operations in the region and we will be posting their contact and bank details etc. on the Internet very soon insha-Allah. This is the only aid agency that the Qoqaz web-sites trust and recommend the people to give their donations to.


    Until these details are made available, we advise the Muslims to collect the money but HOLD ONTO IT. We do not advise you to hand it over to anyone that you do not know. It is better to have a little patience than to hand over your money to someone who may or may not be able to get the money there.






    3. How can we help the Mujahideen in Chechnya?


    (a) By making dua and supplicating to Allah alone and with other people, to give victory to the Mujahideen and destroy the Russians. The latest news page of our web-site contains some examples of duas that you can make.


    (B) By following the authentic news of the Mujahideen from the following web-sites: www.qoqaz.net (English), www.qoqaz.com (Arabic) and www.kavkaz.org (Russian).


    © By spreading this news to as many people and as many places as possible, by the following steps:


    (i) Inform others about our web-sites by putting links on your web-sites.
    (ii) Inform others about our web-sites by e-mailing everyone you know. Please do not send out spam mail so as not to cause inconvenience to people.
    (iii) By printing the web site addresses on paper and putting it up in mosques, centres and university prayer rooms (obtain the proper permission before doing so).
    (iv) By announcing the web site addresses after Friday Prayers in mosques, centres and universities.
    (v) By announcing the web site addresses on local radio stations.
    (vi) By printing out the latest news each day and putting it up on mosque, centres and university prayer room noticeboards.
    (vii) By printing out the latest news each day and giving it to your local Imams and leaders, if they do not have Internet access.


    (d) By collecting as much money as possible from friends, families, relatives and contacts, in mosques, centres, everywhere. Leave this money with a trustworthy individual in your community (informing at least one other person of the amount to avoid errors). Wait until we post the details of the aid organisation able to collect these donations, and then send your money to them. We do not accept or collect donations ourselves as we are only a news outlet.


    (e) If you work for or know someone who works in a reputable aid organisation, inform them that the Mujahideen are in urgent need of Doctors, medical personnel and medical supplies. They are also in need of thousands of small medical combat kits which contain basic dressings, antibiotics, painkilling injections, insertable tampons (to absorb blood from bullet injuries) and other items. A Doctor qualified in Combat Medicine will know what is required. The Doctors and medical personnel should endeavour to make their way to Chechnya through the aid organisations and join the fighting units of Ibn-ul-Khattab. All foreign volunteer help should be directed through Khattab's units, who will then distribute the help as required. Access to Khattab can also be gained by going directly to the fighters under the control of Shamil Basayev. It is better for you to go to Basayev or Khattab rather than join independent fighting militias or regular Chechen Government Forces. Once inside Chechnya, if you have the right contacts, it is very easy to reach Basayev or Khattab's units, despite the Russian lies of the Mujahideen being surrounded.
     
  7. villain

    villain Veteran Member

    Joined: Jul 12, 2002 Messages: 5,190 Likes Received: 2
    Riveting.
    Well it's good to know that the UN is stepping up to the plate after years of this madness.
     
  8. serum

    serum Elite Member

    Joined: Aug 9, 2000 Messages: 4,200 Likes Received: 138
    i completly agree with an independant state but these guys get no sympathy whatsoever. they continue to take hostages and expect freedom. the only way is to get sympathy or help from the international community and its difficult when they are killing kids and innocent russians.
     
  9. villain

    villain Veteran Member

    Joined: Jul 12, 2002 Messages: 5,190 Likes Received: 2
    It's not known whether they were actually chechen freedom fighters. There are many militias within wartorn chechnya. When chaos prevails you cannot expect everyone to be on the same page.
    Anyways, I was listening to a story about this on NPR and there was a man and a woman among the terrorists who were realizing what was happening and tried to pursuade their leader not to follow through. The leader executed them.
     
  10. THE CORONER

    THE CORONER Banned

    Joined: Jun 2, 2004 Messages: 2,171 Likes Received: 0
    yeah i heard that too^^
    but you know that country really is fucked, because while they do not want any foreigners to fight theyre own war, people still come anyways and do shit they tell them not to do, because they know they will not win any sympathy if these foreigners act like terrorists

    i fell bad for those people
     
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